A REVIEW ON RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE
Aquaculture being fastest growing industry, grows at a pace of 1.1% rate per year may not be able to meet the growing demand for aquaculture product. Current global climatic condition does not allow horizontal expansion of this industry anymore. To further increase the aquaculture production, requirement of a robust technology is evident. Recirculatory Aquaculture System (RAS) allows increasing the fish production by many folds using limited resources. Water conservation, biosecurity and high production are key features of this technology. The major challenges seem to be affecting this industry includes poor management, lack of knowledge about the technology, high investment and occurrence of diseases and pathogens. Several researchers are being carried out to improve technical aspect in recirculating loop, efficient use of system by-products and finding an alternative source of energy. Recent advancement in RAS such as denitrification reactors, sludge thickening technologies and ozone treatments results in minimal use of water, waste discharge and energy use. With greater knowledge about the system and understanding the interaction between its components this technology has the potential to bring revolution in aquaculture sector.
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